POL 201 Final Exam – Study Guide
Question 1
The Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus suggested that there would be a world population crisis because the:
Question 2
In the United States, school children are taught not to speak until the teacher calls on them and to regulate their activities according to clocks or bells. This learning experience is referred to as:
Question 3
When leaders imprison or even execute political dissidents, they are applying:
Question 4
According to which sociological perspective did the media begin expressing concern about downsizing only when it began to impact managers and white-collar workers?
Question 5
In a public high school, certain teachers are assigned to work with college preparatory students, while others work with students who plan to go directly into the business world. This is an example of the bureaucratic characteristic of:
Question 6
Which of the following groups currently has the highest infant mortality rate in the United States?
Question 7
In comparison with men, women have lower rates of:
Question 8
According to Dalton Conley, Ph.D. of New York University, __________ is one way social inequality is exemplified in health.
Question 9
Medicine serves as an agent of social control. It has even attempted to guard its jurisdiction by placing health care professionals such as chiropractors and nurse-midwives outside the realm of acceptable medicine. Which sociological perspective would likely view medicine in this manner?
Question 10
Although industrialized nations such as Japan, the United States and the United Kingdom, have been the leading contributors to air pollution, developing countries such as ¬¬¬¬¬-___________, are quickly catching up.
Question 11
___________ authority is derived more from the beliefs of followers than from the actual qualities of leaders.
Question 12
Advocates of the neo-Malthusian view differ from Thomas Malthus in that they favor:
Question 13
Which theorist suggests that capitalist societies such as the United States care more about maximizing profits than they do about the health and safety of industrial workers?
Question 14
What do Paul and Anne Ehrlich suggest is the central factor in environmental deterioration?
Question 15
According to Sidney Verba, PhD, Harvard University, “______________ is a place in which everybody is suppose to have an equal voice and the government is suppose to respond equally to everybody.
Question 16
Neo-Malthusians condemn developed nations, which, despite their low birthrates, consume a disproportionately large share of world resources. This position reflects agreement with which sociological perspective?
Question 17
Teaching students to read and write, to calculate numbers, and to master the facts of the society’s history are all examples of:
Question 18
Which type of city is characterized by relatively large size, open competition, an open class system, and elaborate specialization in the manufacturing of goods?
Question 19
A man changes his position on the issue of immigrant refugees being granted asylum in the United States after a dinner-table argument with his grown children. This would be an example of:
Question 20
A city wants to build a drug rehabilitation center; business, religious, educational, and political groups argue back and forth about where to place this center. These competing groups illustrate which theory?
Question 21
The largest factor contributing to illness and death among children in developing countries is:
Question 22
Fertility is influenced by a person’s:
Question 23
Which sociological term best exemplifies the following passage from Fast Food Nation?
The medical literature on the causes of food poisoning is full of euphemisms and dry scientific terms: coliform levels, aerobic plate counts, sorbitol, MacConkey agar, and so on. Behind them lies a simple explanation for why eating a hamburger can now make you seriously ill: There is shit in the meat.” (p. 197)
Question 24
Which sociological perspective argues the standardization of educational curricula generally reflects the values, interests, and lifestyles of the most powerful groups in a society?
Question 25
Which of the following criticisms were expressed regarding Mills’s power elite model?
Question 26
According to Claude S. Fischer, PhD, University of California, Berkeley, “… where somebody ends up on the ladder of success in the United States depends on
Question 27
The _______________ perspective views education as an instrument of elite domination.
Question 28
___________ is/are designed to prevent any business from taking over so much of an industry that it gains control of the market.
Question 29
During the 1900s, African Americans migrated from rural southern states to northern urban areas. They brought with them high birthrates, which are characteristic of rural residents, and they settled in congested inner-city communities. Which sociological specialist would examine the social consequences of these migration patterns and birthrates?
Question 30
The orders of one’s superiors are felt to be legitimate because “this is how things have always been done” in a political system based on:
Question 31
When a United States corporation relocates its plants to a country where prevailing wages are lower than in the United States, this is the final stage of:
Question 32
In examining health, illness, and medicine as a social institution, which sociological perspective generally focuses on micro-level study of the roles played by health care professionals and patients?
Question 33
Which sociological term best exemplifies the following passage from Fast Food Nation?
“Every day in the United States, roughly 200,000 people are sickened by a food borne disease, 900 are hospitalized, and fourteen die. (p.195)
Question 34
Problems that have accompanied China’s recent and substantial economic growth include:
Question 35
Which area of study is concerned with the interrelationships among people in their spatial setting and physical environment?
Question 36
Which type of city has only a few thousand people living within its borders, a relatively closed class system, and limited mobility?
Question 37
Socialist societies differ from capitalist nations in their commitment to:
Question 38
According to Richard Arum, PhD, New York University, “In a modern society, ____________ are the most important determinants of people’s life course patterns.”
Question 39
The most serious consequences of air pollution are the tremendous quantity of greenhouse gasses released into our atmosphere. These emissions are major contributors to _____________ and may disrupt the delicate balance of our biosphere.
Question 40
“Who gets what, when, how”, is Harold D. Lasswell’s definition of:
Question 41
According to sociologists, which of the following explain why women have tended to be less involved in politics than men?
Question 42
Research in the United States and other countries has consistently shown that people with lower incomes have:
Question 43
The economy of the United States is changing, which is due partly to
Question 44
During an inner-city riot, the governor of a state calls up members of the National Guard to protect stores and private citizens. She is able to take this action based on the state’s constitution and powers granted her by the state’s legislative bodies. Her power is based on which type of authority?
Question 45
Barry Commoner, a biologist, contends the primary cause of environmental ills is the increasing use of:
Question 46
According to Craig Calhoun, Ph.D., New York University, governments are often reluctant to acknowledge and address infections diseases because of
Question 47
Which of the following school programs was initiated as an “agent of social change”?
Question 48
According to former Surgeon General Richard Cardona, the most pressing issue we face today as a nation is _________, which in the year 2002 killed approximately 112,000 people.
Question 49
Putting children in school keeps them off the street and out of trouble. This is an example of a(an):
Question 50
Karl Marx believed that society is ruled by a small group of individuals who share a common set of political and economic interests, such as those represented by:
Question 51
Debbie’s mother and father are both lawyers, and she is sent to an exclusive private school for her education. Teachers are disappointed when she does only average work in her classes, and they spend more time working with and encouraging her to excel than they do with her classmates. This situation illustrates:
Question 52
What is China’s largest source of energy and the resource most largely consumed in the supplying of energy?
Question 53
According to Joseph Chamie, PhD, Department of Economics & Social Affairs, United Nations, the world’s population will reach ____________ by the year 2150, if fertility remains constant.
Question 54
Which sociological perspective observes that less affluent nations are being forced to exploit their mineral deposits, forests, and fisheries in order to meet their obligations to developed nations?
Question 55
Which of the following did Thomas Robert Malthus suggest as method to control population?
Question 56
In the view of Karl Marx, the cause of social ills was not rising world population but rather:
Question 57
The United States has considered a national healthcare system that would guarantee all citizens medical coverage as a basic human right. The government’s involvement in providing healthcare for all citizens is characteristic of which type of economic system?
Question 58
Which sociological perspective emphasizes that the common identity and social integration fostered by education contribute to overall societal stability and consensus?
Question 59
One research study revealed that teachers’ expectations have an impact on students’ athletic achievements. This situation would be of particular interest to which sociological perspective?

 

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